Валентина Калько


Proverbs are specific signs of a natural language, because they belong to informative statements that can store, receive, process and transmit as much as possible the volume of conceptualized content. They have a rich cultural content, express the self-awareness of the ethnic group, form the framework of its mentality, representing it in discourses of various types. The proverb should be studied taking into account three aspects of semiosis: semantics, syntactics, pragmatics.

The purpose of the article is a description of the Ukrainian paremias in view of the semantic dimension of the semiosis, which involves the cognitive reconstruction of the superficial and deep semantics of proverbs.

Results. The paper regards paremia as a language sign marked with a special connection of the form and the content that generally is looked upon as a means to preserve, achieve, process and give the information. Proverb semantics is motivated through its formal structure that is originating a meaningful content of the utterance. On the one hand, the proverb meaning is affected by the constituents semantics that generate a surface content, and on the other, in most cases the structural components may be altered both cognitively and conceptually that generally evokes quite a different depth sense.

Originality. In proverbs small genres of folklore focus all possible cognitive processes, inherent in the ethnic group. Paremia is a complex linguistic sign with diffuse semantics, whose deep structures are related to different types of knowledge. For their semantics recorded in the ethnic consciousness customs, rituals, traditions, beliefs, life, religious beliefs. From the standpoint of cognitive linguistics, the paramount importance is the property of the linguistic consciousness, a multidimensional complex, the various meanings of which pass through the filter of the mentality of the speakers and undergo interpretations in the space of social and cultural knowledge.

Conclusions. Рroverb as a sign of mental representations is the result of the perception of man himself and the environment, therefore the cognitive essence of its semantics is not limited to the synthesis and combinatorics of the contents of the components.


paremia; semantics; linguistic semiosis; in-depth sense; superficial sense


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